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Module logic Import lib_logic;
In order to process this Module declaration when you have Lego started, you must either use the Process Buffer menu item (or ^C^B), or load the file explicitly in Lego with the command "Make logic" (where logic is the filename -- Lego will complain if the filename doesn't match the Module name).
[EM = {P:Prop}or P (not P)]; [DN = {P:Prop}(not (not P))->P]; [Peirce = {P,Q:Prop}((P->Q)->P)->P];To show these three things are equivalent, you must show any one of them implies the other two. You do not need to prove all six implications directly. You could do this by proving a cycle of implications, for example EM->DN->Peirce->EM, or by proving two equivalences, for example EM->DN and DN->EM and Peirce->DN and DN->Peirce. Some of the implications are easier than others, so it is a good idea to think about which ones you want to prove.
NOTE: Be sure you are trying to prove the right goal! In Lego, the scope of a quantifier extends as far to the right as possible if not limited by explicit parentheses. For example, if you write
Goal {P:Prop}or P (not P) ->{P:Prop}(not (not P))->P;then Lego will parse this as
Goal {P:Prop}(or P ((not P) ->{P:Prop}(not (not P))->P));which is probably not what you wanted. You would need to write
Goal ({P:Prop}or P (not P)) ->{P:Prop}(not (not P))->P;to get what you want for this exercise.
Hint: Remember that these are quantified formulas, so the P and Q may be instantiated to any formula.
A shortcut when using negation: If you have a goal which you want to prove by absurd_elim, and you wish to do this by using some assumption H: not A and then proving a proof of A, you can do this in one step with Refine H.
Recall that not A is defined as A->absurd. To prove a negation by proving A->absurd, use the capitalized "Intros", which reduces the goal before introducing assumptions. For example:
?0 : not A Lego> Intros x; Intros x; Intros (1) x x : A ?1 : absurd Lego>